The most common augmentative and pejorative suffixes (feminine forms in parentheses) are -ón (-ona), -azo (-aza) and -ote (-ota). Less common ones include -udo (-uda), -aco (-aca), -acho (-acha), -uco (-uca), -ucho (-ucha), -astro (-astra) and -ejo (-eja). Although nouns usually maintain their gender when put in an augmentative form, it isn't unusual for the words, especially when they come to be thought of as words in their own right, to change gender (especially from feminine to masculine).
There's no way to predict which ending (if any) can be attached to a particular noun, and the meanings of some suffixed words can vary from region to region. Here are the main ways in which these endings are used:
To indicate something is large: When used in this way, the suffixes can also indicate something is strong or powerful or has some other quality often associated with size.
- Examples: mujerona (big and/or tough woman), arbolote (big tree), perrazo (a big and/or mean dog), librazo or librote (big book), pajarote (large bird), casona (large house), cabezón (big-headed, big-headed person, literally or figuratively), cabezota (stubborn, stubborn person).
- Examples: solterón (confirmed bachelor), solterona ("old maid"), favorzote (a huge favor), un cochazo (one heck of a car), grandote (very big), ricachón (filthy rich, filthy-rich person), grandullón (overgrown).
- Examples: padrote (pimp), ratón (mouse), tablón (bulletin board, thick board), fogón (stove), cinturón (belt), camisón (nightgown), serrucho (handsaw), hacer un papelón (to make a spectacle of oneself), cajón (drawer), cordón (shoelace), lamparón (grease stain), llorón (crybaby), humazo (cloud of smoke).
- Examples: hachazo (blow or chop with an ax), martillazo (blow with a hammer), puñetazo (punch with a fist), cabezazo (head butt), codazo (jab with the elbow), plumazo (the stroke of a pen), huevazo (a blow from a thrown egg), misilazo (missile strike), sartenazo (a blow from a frying pan).