As in English, the most common word order for the main parts of a sentence is for the main verb to follow the subject, that is, the noun that performs the action of the verb. For example, the following sentences follow the normal pattern:
- El hombre canta. The man sings. (In this sentence, hombre/"man" is the subject noun, and canta/"sings" is the verb.
- El año fue especialmente cálido. The year was especially hot. (Año/"year" is the subject noun, and fue/"was" is the verb.)
However, in Spanish it is much more common than in English for that order to be reversed. In general, as explained in an introductory lesson on word order, Spanish overall is more flexible in where parts of the sentence can be located. This lesson deals specifically with placing the subject after the verb.
Here are those most common cases where this phenomenon appears:In questions: When a question begins with an interrogative word, also known as a question word, a verb typically comes next, followed by the noun. This pattern is common in English as well.
- ¿Dónde pueden encontrar información los diabéticos? Where can diabetics find information? (Diabéticos/"diabetics" is the subject of the sentence, while the compound verb is pueden encontrar/"can find.")
- ¿Cuándo va él al médico? When is he going to the doctor?
- ¿Qué son los cromosomas? ¿Cuántos tiene el hombre? What are chromosomes? How many does a human have?
In some exclamations: When an interrogative word begins an exclamation, the subject also follows the verb:
- ¡Qué verdes son los árboles! How green the trees are!
- ¡Cuántos errores cometió él! What a lot of mistakes he made!
When an adverb precedes the verb: Because Spanish likes to keep adverbs close to the verbs they modify, the noun can be placed after the verb when the adverb (or adverbial phrases) comes before the verb. A few examples:
- Siempre me decía mi madre que en la vida se recoge lo que se siembra. My mother always told me that in life you reap what you sow. (In the first part of the sentence, the subject "mi madre" follows the verb "decía," which is kept close to the adverb siempre.)
- Así era la Internet en la década de los 90. That's how the Internet was in the '90s.
- Cuando era niño me maltrataron muchísimo mis padres. When I was a boy my parents mistreated me a lot. ("Cuando era niño" is an adverbial phrase, and the subject of this sentence is "mis padres.")
- Existen muchos mitos alrededor del sida. There are many myths surrounding AIDS.
- Solo hay dos opciones. There are only two choices.
To indicate the person speaking: In English, you can say either "'It's difficult,' Paula said" or "'It's difficult,' said Paula," although the former is more common. In Spanish, the latter variation "'Es difícil', dijo Paula" is nearly always used.
- Eso está muy bien, contestó el Presidente. That's very fine, the president answered.
- Es sólo un sueño, pensó la niña. It's only a dream, the girl thought.
With verbs like gustar: Gustar is an unusual verb in that it is used almost exclusively in sentences that follow an "indirect object + gustar + subject" pattern. Thus in "Me gusta la manzana" (usually translated as "I like the apple" rather than the more literal "the apple is pleasing to me"), the verb gusta is followed by the subject "la manzana." Similar verbs, some of them listed in the lesson on verbs that function like gustar," include faltar (to be lacking), importar (to be important), encantar (to delight), molestar (to bother), doler (to cause pain) and quedar (to remain).
For emphasis or special effect: It is seldom grammatically wrong (although it can be awkward) to place almost any verb before its subject noun. When done, it is usually for emphasis or some kind of effect.
- De repente me escuchó mi madre. At once my mother listened to me. (Here the speaker may be placing emphasis on the listening.)
- Aprendimos de ellos y aprendieron ellos de nosotros. We learned about them and they learned about us. (Here the speaker may be subconsciously avoiding the awkwardness of "ellos y ellos," which would be the normal word order.)
- Todo eso y más me decían mis padres. My parents told me all that and more.
Sources: Sample sentences are adapted from a variety of sources written by native speakers. Ones consulted for this lesson include: Adich.org, Aslaram, Cambio-climatico.com, Como Ganar Dinero, Elijaya.com, ForoActivo Identidad Geek, Magalí Daltabuit Godás, Piedras Vivas, Vitonica.com, Yahoo.es.