If you've already learned the demonstrative adjectives of Spanish, you'll find it quite easy to learn the demonstrative pronouns. They serve basically the same purpose, acting as the equivalent of "this," "that," "these" or "those" in English. The main difference is that they (like other pronouns) stand for nouns rather than modify them.
Below are the demonstrative pronouns of Spanish. Notice that they are identical to the adjectives, except that most traditionally use accent marks and that there is a neuter form (adjectives don't have a neuter form).
- éste (this)
- ése (that)
- aquél (that)
- éstos (these)
- ésos (those)
- aquéllos (those)
- ésta (this)
- ésa (that)
- aquélla (that)
- éstas (these)
- ésas (those)
- aquéllas (those)
- esto (this)
- eso (that)
- aquello (that)
The accents do not affect the pronunciation, but are used merely to distinguish adjectives and pronouns. (Such accents are known as orthographic accents.) The neuter pronouns do not have accents because they have no corresponding adjective forms. Strictly speaking, the accents aren't mandatory; their disuse has been recognized by the Spanish Royal Academy but remain commonplace.
Use of the pronouns should seem straightforward, as they are used basically the same in both English and Spanish. The key difference is that Spanish requires use of the masculine pronoun when it substitutes for a masculine noun, and use of the feminine pronoun when it substitutes for a feminine noun. Also, while English does use its demonstrative pronouns standing alone, it also often uses forms such as "this one" and "those ones." The "one" or "ones" shouldn't be translated separately into Spanish.
The difference between the ése series of pronouns and aquél series is the same as the difference between the ese series of demonstrative adjectives and the aquel series. Although ése and aquél can both be translated as "that," aquél is used to refer to something farther away in distance or time.
- Quiero esta flor. No quiero ésa. I want this flower. I don't want that one.
- Me probé muchas camisas. Voy a comprar ésta. I tried on many shirts. I'm going to buy this one.
- Me probé muchos sombreros. Voy a comprar éste. I tried on many hats. I'm going to buy this one.
- Me gustan esas casas. No me gustan aquéllas. I like those houses. I don't like those over there.
Using the neuter pronounsThe neuter pronouns are never used to substitute for a specific noun. They are used to refer to an unknown object or to an idea or concept that isn't specifically named. (If you would have occasion to use a neuter plural, use the plural masculine form.) The use of eso is extremely common to refer to a situation that has just been stated.
- ¿Qué es esto? What is this [unknown object]?
- Esto es bueno. This [referring to a situation rather than a specific object] is good.
- El padre de María murió. Por eso, está triste. Mary's father died. Because of that, she's sad.)
- Tengo que salir a las ocho. No olvida eso. I have to leave at eight. Don't forget that.)