Definition: A word or phrase in one language whose semantic components (words or parts of words) are translations from another language. For example, the English phrase "blue blood" is a calque of the Spanish phrase sangre azul (sangre means "blood" and azul means "blue"), which at one time apparently referred to the visible veins of fair-skinned people. Similarly, the Spanish rascacielo is a calque of the English "skyscraper" (rasca means "it scrapes" and cielo means "sky"). A calque contrasts with a loanword, in which a foreign word or phrase is adopted outright without an attempt at translating the elements, such as the English phrase "piña colada," which is a simple borrowing of the Spanish phrase rather than a translation of the words (which mean "strained pineapple").
Also Known As: "Loan translation" in English, calco in Spanish.
Another English calque from Spanish is "moment of truth," from el momento de la verdad
, a bullfighting term. Examples of Spanish calques from English include hombre rana
("frogman"), alto el fuego
("dishwasher"), luna de miel
("honeymoon"), salvaje Oeste
("wild West"), disco duro
("hard disk") and banco de datos